You are here: Foswiki>Global Web>ImcHistory (14 May 2006, PaulWise)EditAttach
> Global Home

see also:

Imc History

This page should host documents about imc history, mailing list chronologies, historical turning points and so, to let people have a general overview of what indymedia has been, through the work and words of the people involved in it.

Most of the material will be in English.


History of Indymedia (IMC)

The Independent Media Center (, was established by various independent and alternative media organizations and activists in 1999 for the purpose of providing grassroots coverage of the World Trade Organization (WTO) protests in Seattle. The center acted as a clearinghouse of information for interested people, journalists and activists worldwide, and provided up-to-the-minute reports. Written reports, photos, audio and video footage was published on the website, by means of an open-publishing system. The first post on Seattle Indymedia reads:

welcome to indymedia
author: maffew and manse
Nov 24, 1999 18:45

The resistance is global... a trans-pacific collaboration has brought this web site into existence.

The web dramatically alters the balance between multinational and activist media. With just a bit of coding and some cheap equipment, we can setup a live automated website that rivals the corporates. Prepare to be swamped by the tide of activist media makers on the ground in Seattle and around the world, telling the real story behind the World Trade Agreement.

It is traditional to add a birthday message to that post each year.

Using the collected footage, the Seattle Independent Media Center ( produced a series of five documentaries, uplinked every day to satellite and distributed throughout the United States to public access stations.

The center also produced its own newspaper, distributed throughout Seattle and to other cities via the internet, as well as hundreds of audio segments, transmitted through the web and Studio X, a 24-hour micro and internet radio station based in Seattle. The site, which uses a democratic open-publishing system, logged more than 2 million hits, and was featured on America Online, Yahoo, CNN, BBC Online, and numerous other sites. Through a decentralized and autonomous network, hundreds of media activists set up independent media centers in London, Canada, Mexico City, Prague, Belgium, France, and Italy over the next year. IMCs have since been established on every continent, currently featuring over 125 different local and nationale Independent Media Centres, with more to come.

For more information, see the IMC Frequently Asked Questions.

Note: this document is a somewhat revised edition of About Indymedia on the Indymedia Global website.

Annie and Sam: From Indymedia Uk to the United Kollektives. In: Media Development 4/2003. Online 6 November 2003:

From Indymedia Uk to the United Kollektives

by Annie and Sam

This is a story of the pre-history of imc-uk with an outlook to the present decentralised countrywide structure of the United Kollektives as experienced by some but not all of the volunteers who "were there". The first phase of imc-uk was marked by the specifics of an imc located in the metropolitan geography of London, the richness of connectivity and inspiration, the lack of space, and the offline-practices of blagging and sharing. The second, post-decentralisation phase points to the process of building a larger network, using more cybertools than before, and allowing for localised reporting.

Pre-History: From J18 to S26

City of London, June 18 1999. Soundsystems, puppets, colourful banners. Dancing crowds swinging in the glistening sunshine: Europe's Financial Center # 1 has been taken over by a Carnival against Capitalism, cyberconnected to dozens of venues of a Global Street Party.
In the vicinity of Jack the Ripper near the old Clink prison on the south side of the river Thames: Backspace, an alternative internetcafe. Cables, dusty boxes, keyboards, dirty mugs. Projections of the party on the wall. A sound- and video studio run by various media collectives. Typing, coding, converting, uploading. This was the seed of indymedia uk.

The London J18 street party was coordinated by "Reclaim the Streets". Inspired by the Anti-Road Protest Camps and Free Party Culture of the early 90s, unauthorised streetparties evolved as a means to "reclaim the commons of the city". In late 1994, the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act declared civil protests and free parties criminal acts. Squatters, travellers, free party people and grassroots activists moved from the remote countryside to Britain's urban landscapes (more 1 | 2) < see "The Evolution of Reclaim the Streets". Do Or Die #6, 1997, p 1-10 >.

With the first Global Street Party in protest against the Birmingham G8, RTS contributed to the development of a globally synchronised and grassroots-mediated form of political articulation which has become the trade mark of the global movement.

After 4 years and 65 recorded "Reclaim the Streets" parties , J18 was the first event with an explicitely anti-capitalist agenda. While corporate media had covered previous RTS parties sympathetically as environmental events, J18 was represented as a violent riot < a search on Guardian Unlimited brings up 126 articles on Reclaim the streets since 1999. Earlier material is not anymore accessible >. The subsequent criminalisation led to a media strategy as a means of self-protection.

Based on the experience on J18, the Reclaim the Streets media group decided to go for a media outlet of their own, rather than lobbying with corporate media. The group soon became independent from Reclaim the Streets. N30, the "Battle of Seattle" was reported on a basic, manually maintained website. On Mayday 2000, the indymedia brand crossed the Atlantic: the guerilla gardening event was reported under the name "indymedia uk" . The fully fledged Open Publishing imc-uk site was ready for the S26 protests against the WMF/Worldbank conference in Prague (S26 2000).

Like many other imcs, we used an improved version of the free open source software "active". The "active"-code was developed within the Australian activist community (Sydney), and used for j18. The acknowledgements for "active" document an impressive collaboration both in virtual and physical space.

Imc in London - A Virtual Project In Real Space

From the beginning, the London based imc collective regarded indymedia as a project in both virtual and physical space. Open publishing allowed the streets to enter cyberspace, but it also brought technology to the streets. From the mission statement: "Through this system of 'Direct Media', Indymedia erodes the dividing line between reporters and reported, between active producers and passive audience: people are enabled to speak for themselves". Direct media = media as party, education, direct action, entertainment, empowerment. Film screenings, radio programs, printed materials and public access terminals created a presence outside the web.

Our internal process had an emphasis on face to face meetings in real space. Ironically, we never managed to find a room of our own. Fluid nomadism seems to suit the urban landscape better than settlement. Most community centers were closed down by the Thatcher government, and even public toilets and the pavement at the Southbank are privatised. So we embarked on a journey through the guts of London - an artists caff at King's x, a freezing-cold disused warehouse in the East End, a pub in Kentish Town, a friend's kitchen, the basement of a pub in trendy Hoxton, a squatted button-factory in Brixton, the People's Palace, until we finally arrived back at the bosom of the activist ghetto in a resource center in a former synagogue in Whitechapel. The journey continues to physically take us to demos, free and commercial parties, conferences, festivals.

Blagging, Sharing and the Global Commons

" blag " - (a) to carry out a robbery. (b) to scrounge, cadge, deceive or bamboozle, or the booty from such an activity. Has been in widespread use in both senses in underworld and police circles since the early 1950s.
Tony Thorne: Dictionnary of Contemporary Slang, London 1999 (1990), p34.

While all indymedia sites are part of the claim for a global commons on the web, the people who run them locally are extending this claim to the material sphere, drawing on existing values and practices. If you have neither money nor the will to acquire it, how do you run a media center in London, with it's long history of Capitalism and its attitude of charging 2 for every breath you take? You learn to find the cracks in the smooth surface of urban consumerism. Emerged from the spirit of ravers, travellers, squatters and grassroots groups, the first imc-uk collective embraced an economy of non-monetary exchange of materials and support.

Blagging, bartering and sharing is much closer to our heart than proper fundraising: an indymedia stall at a festival against free tickets, a few old computers from some company, connectivity for major reporting. When we use IT-equipment in our office jobs for indymedia tasks, we embrace a traditional working class tactic for re-distribution. Cameras, minidisk players, mikes, laptops are multiplied by sharing them - they are never idle, although the process to trace them can be tiring.

This practice tunes in with the free software philosophy - (free as in both "free beer" and "free speech"). Our metropolitan dwelling place suggests that resources and even knowledge are scarce and expensive. We try to treat them as plentiful, ever multiplying "commons". The commitment to non-hierarchical collaboration and the diy-philosophy is a vital element of this process. The synergy extends beyond the boundaries of the collective. Groups like deckspace, blag, or socialsoftware give technical support. Generator x (1 |2) provides a solar-powered truck as a mobile media center for events like the Glastonbury Festival or the noborder demo at the refugee camp in Calais. Undercurrents and pirate tv collaborated in the j7 streaming project. Slowly, indymedia became a presence in the alternative media scene - but the step out of London and into a more community based structure took a long time.

From imc uk to United Kollectives

Indymedia uk was designed as an alternative news platform for all regions in the uk - a vision supported by experienced alternative media groups like Undercurrents, I-contact, pirate tv, squall and schnews. The news stories focussed on a Uk-wide active audience. In contrast, imc-bristol was founded as a community news platform. We realised that a uk wide project would need a decentralised structure, both technically and socially. The worldwide anti-war protests in february 2003 became a catalyst for this process.

The long-delayed decision to work on a new codebase gained momentum. After 3 mad months and many irc sessions, a new website with pages for each local collective went live on 26 June 2003. Presently, the website is run by 9 local collectives under the Mir code. Concepts for imc-reporting on a local scale are being developed. Each collective has a different story to tell - and our name changed to "United Kollektives".

The expansion of the project didn't come without flaws. The fallout of activist burn-out is considerable (1 | 2). Self-exploitation, over-ambitiousness, carelessness, lack of communication and exaggerated feelings of responsibility have lead to breakdowns, clashes, frustration and deep disappointment - but also to adrenalin highs and a steep learning curve.

Unlimited public-ness can be scary, but as a large network, imc uk relies even more than before on openness and transparency. We are learning to make confident use of publicly archived email lists, open-access collaboration tools and chatrooms. IT-tools are now vital to report major events. Information flows through an increasingly complex international dispatch system. The informal mode of self-organisation within a small collective is becoming more accountable to suit the needs of a large network. Building consensus about editorial guidelines, mission statement and working practices is an ongoing process. IT-tools mean both exclusion and empowerment, hierarchies emerge in fluid as well as in static structures. Imc uk remains in the in-between space between diy-culture and professionalisation, open for both sides of the divide.


In an email, imc-uk was told that the magazine "Media Development" will publish its autumn edition with a focus on Indymedia. I've contacted the editor, s/he wants a presentation of imc-uk of 1000 to 1500 wds. Also see the first version. The twiki, where the drafts developed, was made public on imc-uk lists. A number of people contributed to the final text. Thanks particularly to planet and yoss for comments. publication

see the other indymedia articles on the wacc website, for expl: imc germany | South Africa |

-- PaulWise - 14 May 2006 added first post on seattle indymedia -- IonNec - 06 Jan 2004 added imc uk article -- VlO - 21 Aug 2003

Topic revision: r6 - 14 May 2006 - 16:08:44 - PaulWise
This site is powered by FoswikiCopyright & by the contributing authors. All material on this collaboration platform is the property of the contributing authors.
Ideas, requests, problems regarding Foswiki? Send feedback